Instructors often ask us questions about how to build more inclusive classrooms, and what we know about these topics from research in the field. We are fortunate to have a rich body of literature in this area, and here are a few resources that instructors might find enlightening.
Introductions and Overviews
Here are several good places to start to understand the importance of these concepts on undergraduate education.
- American Psychological Association. “Stereotype Threat Widens Achievement Gap.” Accessed December 9, 2019. https://www.apa.org/research/action/stereotype
- This resource from the APA provides a brief but solid summary of the research into stereotype threat, as well as their implications for teachers and others.
- Murphy, Mary. “The Impact of Instructor Bias on Student Success” https://teaching.iu.edu/greatconversations/index.html
- In this video from Teaching.IU’s Great Conversations series, IU Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences Mary Muprhy speaks about how students’ sense of belonging can impact their success in learning.
- Huston, Therese A., and Michele Dipietro. “In the Eye of the Storm: Students’ Perceptions of Helpful Faculty Actions Following a Collective Tragedy.” To Improve the Academy 25, no. 1 (June 2007): 207-224. Available: https://podnetwork.org/content/uploads/In_the_Eye.pdf
- This article specifically addresses how faculty members address large crises, and the which types of responses students find most helpful. The study is seen as applicable to how instructors might address other campus issues with which students may be struggling.
- Romero, Carissa. “What We Know about Belonging from Scientific Research.” https://mindsetscholarsnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/What-We-Know-About-Belonging.pdf
- This article summarizes the ways students’ sense of belonging can impact their learning.
- Sathy, Viji, and Helly A. Hogan. “Want to Reach All of Your Students? Here’s How to Make Your Teaching More Inclusive.” Chronicle of Higher Education. July 22, 2019. https://www.chronicle.com/interactives/20190719_inclusive_teaching
- This popular article from the Chronicle provides a good overview of inclusive teaching practices. While not a research study, per se, these practices are all evidence-informed, and the site provides links to some important articles in the field.
Deeper Dives into the Research
If you want to go deeper into the research behind these concepts, here are a few key studies you might want to read.
Killpack, Tess, and Laverne C. Melón. “Toward Inclusive STEM Classrooms: What Personal Role Do Faculty Play? CBE Life Sciences Education, 15(3) (2016). Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008899/.
Claude M. Steele, and Joshua M. Aronson. (1995). “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African-Americans.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1995: 797-811. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15726133_Stereotype_Threat_and_The_Intellectual_Test-Performance_of_African-Americans
Mischa Thompson, and Denise Sekaquaptewa. “When Being Different is Detrimental: Solo Status and the Performance of Women and Minorities.” Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 2002: 183-203. Available: https://spssi.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2002.00037.x
Margaret Walsh, Crystal Hickey, and Jim Duffy. “Influence of Item Content and Stereotype Situation on Gender Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving. Sex Roles, 41, 219-240, 1999. Abstract: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1018854212358.
Gregory M. Walton, and Geoffrey L. Cohen. “A Question of Belonging: Race, Social Fit, and Achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 2007: 82-96. Available: https://www.goshen.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2016/08/WaltonCohen2007.pdf